EXAM BITESIZE (UNIT 12)
Read the article and say in 2–3 sentences what it is about.
Nelson Mandela is well known for his long fight against bad government of South Africa exercising racial discrimination. Mandela was born in 1918 into a royal family of the Tembu people where his father was a chief. After college, Nelson Mandela studied law at a university and became a lawyer. In 1944, he joined the ANC, the African National Congress, which wanted black South Africans to have the same human rights as whites. Mandela led young people in the ANC to speak out against apartheid; but to speak out was dangerous. In 1956, Mandela and 155 other people were arrested. After five years, he was set free. In 1960, people held a demonstration against apartheid at Sharpeville. The police shot dead 69 black people, but the government blamed the ANC and started to hunt Mandela and eventually arrested him. In 1964, he was arrested again and accused of plotting to overthrow the government. At age 46, Mandela was given a life sentence. Mandela was sent to prison on Robben Island where he spent 18 years. Although Mandela had to do hard labour and was allowed one visitor every 6 months, he didn’t give up. Even the prison guards admired him. In 1990, South Africa’s new president F.W. de Klerk set Nelson Mandela free. The president and Mandela agreed: no more fighting. Later, in 1993, Nelson Mandela and F.W. de Klerk shared the Nobel Peace Prize for negotiating South Africa’s peaceful transition to multiracial democracy. In the 1994 elections, black people of South Africa were able to vote for the first time. The ANC, Mandela’s party, won the election, and Nelson Mandela became South Africa’s first black president. As a president, he was respected for his courage and wisdom in bringing people together to live in peace. Nelson Mandela retired in 1999. In 2004, at the age of 86, he gave up politics to enjoy a quiet life with his family. Nelson Mandela died in 2013 following a lung illness. He was an inspiration for people all over the world. South Africans called Nelson Mandela Madiba, or Tata, to show great respect and affection to the greatest of men.
Listen to a telephone conversation and answer the questions below.
Let’s talk about South Africa.
Let’s talk about New Zealand.
Let’s talk about India.